An intervertebral disc is located in between the bones (vertebrae) of the spine to provide cushioning support and flexibility within the spine. However, these discs may become damaged and may tear or move out of place. A herniated disc, also known as a ruptured or slipped disc, is a common condition that may occur as a result of gradual wear and tear on the disc or from an injury to the spine that cracks or tears the disc and causes it to bulge or break open.
Patients with a herniated disc may experience pain, numbness and weakness in the affected area as the disc presses on the nearby nerve roots. The location of the affected disc determines the location of the pain. For example, a herniated disc in the lower back may cause pain through the buttock and down the leg, a condition known as sciatica.
Pain from a herniated disc may be worse during activity and then get better during rest. Anything that puts pressure on the nerve, such as coughing sneezing, sitting or bending forward, can cause pain to worsen. If the herniated disc does not touch any nerves, patients may not experience any pain from this condition.
Your doctor can diagnose this condition after performing a physical examination and taking X-ray images of the affected area. He or she will also ask you questions about your symptoms in order to rule out other conditions and confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for a herniated disc depends on the location and severity of the condition. In many cases, symptoms will improve on their own within a few weeks or months. Patients should rest, use a heating pad and perform therapeutic exercises in order to manage pain, in addition to taking pain medication prescribed by your doctor. Improving your posture may also be effective in relieving pain and helping a herniated disc heal.